Issues include accidents at sea; risk of spills through local and international transport of petroleum and petroleum products. Oil and water do not mix. Unfortunately oil spills is not the only form of pollution that occurs in Jamaica. Solid waste disposal mechanisms in Jamaica are currently inadequate. Solid waste is also harmful to wildlife, particularly birds, fish and turtles that feed at the surface of the water and mistake floating debris for food. Pieces of plastic, metal, and glass can be mistaken for the food fish eat. There are policies that are being put into place to help preserve the ocean and the life below water.
The goal of integrated coastal zone management ICZM is to improve the quality of life of human communities who depend on coastal resources while maintaining the biological diversity and productivity of coastal ecosystems. Over-building, driven by powerful market forces as well as poverty among some sectors of the population, and destructive exploitation contribute to the decline of ocean and coastal resources. Some of these practices include: Develop sustainable fisheries practices, ensure sustainable mariculture techniques and practices, sustainable management of shipping, and promote sustainable tourism practices.
Tourist are not going to be used to living in a different style compared to their own country. Practices such as: provide sewage treatment facilities for all tourist areas, determine carrying capacity of the environment prior to planning tourism activities, provide alternative types of tourist activities can help to get desired results such as the development of alternative tourism which will reduce the current pressure on resources that support traditional tourism activities.
Instead of using tourist fees they would call them environmental fees. This study aims to inform the relevant stakeholders of the feasibility of implementing environmental fees as well as the likely impact of such revenue generating instruments on the current tourist visitation rates to the island.
The results show that tourists have a high consumer surplus associated with a vacation in Jamaica, and have a significantly lower willingness to pay for a tourism tax when compared to an environmental tax. A tax high enough to fund for environmental management and protection but low enough to continue to bring tourist to Jamaica. Jamaica's diverse ethnic roots is reflected in the national motto 'Out of Many One People'.
Most of the population of 2,, July est. The Jamaican Maroons of Accompong and other settlements are the descendant of African slaves who fled the plantations for the interior where they set up their own autonomous communities. Asians form the second-largest group and include Indo-Jamaicans and Chinese Jamaicans.
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The southwestern parish of Westmoreland is famous for its large population of Indo-Jamaicans. There are about 20, Jamaicans who have Lebanese and Syrian ancestry. Eventually their descendants became very successful politicians and businessmen. In , Lord Seaford gave acres of his 10, acre estate in Westmoreland for the Seaford Town German settlement.
Today most of the town's descendants are of full or partial German descent. The first wave of English immigrants arrived to the island after conquering the Spanish, and they have historically being the dominant group.
The first Irish immigrants came to Jamaica in the s as war prisoners and later, indentured labour. Along with the English and the Irish , the Scots are another group that has made a significant impact on the island. According to the Scotland Herald newspaper , Jamaica has more people using the Campbell surnames than the population of Scotland itself, and it also has the highest percentage of Scottish surnames outside of Scotland.
Later, they would be followed by ambitious businessmen who spent time between their great country estates in Scotland and the island. As a result, many of the slave owning plantations on the island were owned by Scottish men, and thus a large number of mixed-race Jamaicans can claim Scottish ancestry. High immigration from Scotland continued until well after independence. There is also a significant Portuguese Jamaican population that is predominantly of Sephardic Jewish heritage; they are primarily located in the Saint Elizabeth Parish in southwest Jamaica.
The first Jews arrived as explorers from Spain in the 15th century after being forced to convert to Christianity or face death.
ST. VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
A small number of them became slave owners and even famous pirates. During the Holocaust Jamaica became a refuge for Jews fleeing persecution in Europe.
Jamaica is regarded as a bilingual country, with two major languages in use by the population. However, the primary spoken language is an English-based creole called Jamaican Patois or Patwa. The two exist in a dialect continuum, with speakers using a different register of speech depending on context and who they are speaking to.
In the case of the United States, about 20, Jamaicans per year are granted permanent residence. It was estimated in that up to 2. Jamaicans in the United Kingdom number an estimated , making them by far the country's largest African-Caribbean group. Large-scale migration from Jamaica to the UK occurred primarily in the s and s when the country was still under British rule.
Jamaican communities exist in most large UK cities.
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A notable though much smaller group of emigrants are Jamaicans in Ethiopia. These are mostly Rastafarians, in whose theological worldview Africa is the promised land, or 'Zion', or more specifically Ethiopia, due to reverence in which former Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie is held. When Jamaica gained independence in , the murder rate was 3. Jamaica has had one of the highest murder rates in the world for many years, according to UN estimates.
- The Second Helvetic Confession.
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines;
- The Christian Family Workbook.
- Thrilling Days In Army Life (With Table of Contents and List of Illustrations that are Interactive).
- Jamaica - Wikipedia.
However, there were 1, reported murders in and 1, in Many Jamaicans are hostile towards LGBT and intersex people,    and mob attacks against gay people have been reported. Christianity is the largest religion practised in Jamaica. The Rastafari movement has 29, adherents, according to the census, with 25, Rastafarian males and 3, Rastafarian females. Various faiths and traditional religious practices derived from Africa are practised on the island, notably Kumina , Convince , Myal and Obeah.
There is also a small population of about Jews , who describe themselves as Liberal-Conservative. Originally built in , it is the official and only Jewish place of worship left on the island. The once abundant Jewish population has voluntarily converted to Christianity over time. Other small groups include Muslims , who claim 5, adherents,  The Muslim holidays of Ashura , known locally as Hussay or Hosay and Eid , have been celebrated throughout the island for hundreds of years.
In the past, every plantation in each parish celebrated Hosay. Today it has been called an Indian carnival and is perhaps most well known in Clarendon where it is celebrated each August. People of all religions attend the event, showing mutual respect. Though a small nation, Jamaican culture has a strong global presence. The musical genres reggae , ska , mento , rocksteady , dub , and, more recently, dancehall and ragga all originated in the island's vibrant, popular urban recording industry.
Some rappers, such as The Notorious B. Bob Marley is probably the best known Jamaican musician; with his band The Wailers he had a string of hits in ss, popularising reggae internationally and going on to sell millions of records. The journalist and author H.
The White Witch of Rosehall is one of his better-known novels. He was named Honorary President of the Jamaican Press Association; he worked throughout his professional career to promote the Jamaican sugar industry. Roger Mais — , a journalist, poet, and playwright wrote many short stories, plays, and novels, including The Hills Were Joyful Together , Brother Man , and Black Lightning Jamaica has a history in the film industry dating from the early s.
A look at delinquent youth in Jamaica is presented in the s musical crime film The Harder They Come , starring Jimmy Cliff as a frustrated and psychopathic reggae musician who descends into a murderous crime spree. Jamaica is also often used as a filming location, such as the James Bond film Dr. No , Cocktail starring Tom Cruise , and the Disney comedy Cool Runnings , which is loosely based on the true story of Jamaica's first bobsled team trying to make it in the Winter Olympics.
The island is famous for its Jamaican jerk spice , curries and rice and peas which is integral to Jamaican cuisine.
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From the Jamaica Information Service . Sport is an integral part of national life in Jamaica and the island's athletes tend to perform to a standard well above what might ordinarily be expected of such a small country.
Jamaica has produced some of the world's most famous cricketers, including George Headley , Courtney Walsh , and Michael Holding. Sabina Park is the only Test venue in the island, but the Greenfield Stadium is also used for cricket. Since independence Jamaica has consistently produced world class athletes in track and field. In Jamaica it is not uncommon for young athletes to attain press coverage and national fame long before they arrive on the international athletics stage.
Over the past six decades Jamaica has produced dozens of world class sprinters including Olympic and World Champion Usain Bolt , world record holder in the m for men at 9. Jamaica has also produced several world class amateur and professional boxers including Trevor Berbick and Mike McCallum. Association football and horse-racing are other popular sports in Jamaica. Horse racing was Jamaica's first sport. It was brought in the s by British immigrants to satisfy their longing for their favorite pastime back at home. During slavery, the Afro-Jamaican slaves were considered the best horse jockeys.
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Today, horse racing provides jobs for about 20, people including horse breeders, groomers, and trainers. Also, there are hundreds of Jamaicans who are employed in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom as exercise riders and groomers. Race car driving is also a popular sport in Jamaica with several car racing tracks and racing associations across the country. The Jamaica national bobsled team was once a serious contender in the Winter Olympics , beating many well-established teams.